Control of the national land base was wrested from the Hawaiian Kingdom. For most of the 20th century, Hawaiʻi did not have a single school that made the Native Hawaiian language or culture central to its curriculum.
Stories of Hawaiian resistance to American takeover were hidden.
These such “health indicators” included behavioral health such as suicide and depression.
Data gathered in the first decade of the 2000s show that these statistics remain largely unchanged thirty years later. This is why issues of land and sovereignty remain so urgent.
In post-World War II Hawaiʻi, hotels and resorts replaced sugar plantations.
Newly built luxury homes and suburban sprawl accommodated the rush of US American settlers in the years after 1959.
The other stream fundamentally questioned the jurisdiction of the US in Hawaiʻi, invoking fundamental principals of international law and emphasizing the independence of Hawai‘i as a country unto itself.In 1983, the first two major studies on the status of Native Hawaiians were completed: the Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment project and the Native Hawaiian Study Commission report.Both showed that Kanaka Maoli had the highest rates of family poverty, incarceration, academic underachievement (including drop-out and absentee rates) and various negative health indicators.In 1959, the US federal government transferred the remainder of lands that were not reserved for US military usage or for the Hawaiian Homelands trust to the newly formed State of Hawaiʻi.
These lands are frequently referred to as the “Ceded lands,” a moniker which many Kānaka Maoli oppose, since the lands were illegally seized from, rather than legally transferred by, the Hawaiian Kingdom.
The “nation within a nation” stream of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement grew out of a pragmatic desire to uplift Native Hawaiian people by accessing collective resources held by the settler state.